PBR Material

By default, each 3D Model has a bound PBR Material. This Material contains all settings and texture channels. To apply an existing library material to a 3D Model, simply drag & drop material from the library over the 3D model in the viewport.

When selecting your 3D-Model, you can find the Material settings in the Settings window:

Material Channels

The PBR material consists of 6 different channels: Albedo, Height, Normals, Metalness, Roughness, and Emissive. Most of these channels offer a texture channel along with an offset value.

Diffuse / Albedo (RGB)

Metalness (Grayscale)

All differences in reflectance and absorption of natural surfaces can be split into two different types: Electric (Metals) and Dielectric (Plastics, Fabric, etc.). The Metalness value defines the transition between these types. 0=Dielectric 100%=Metallic

Roughness (Grayscale)

The Roughness channel describes how rough or smooth the surface is, which has a big influence on how it reflects the light and environment. 0%=smooth (like a mirror), 100% = full rough (like a paper)

Normals (RGB)

Normal Maps are used to add 3D details to the surface. These normal maps store a surface normal vector in tangent space. While Depence² uses a left-handed coordinate system it uses the following normal map orientation: Red=X+ Green=Y- Blue=Z+. Depence uses "DirectX-style" normal maps which are -Y:

Example of a normal map.

Height (Grayscale)

In addition to Normal Mapping the Heights are used to create the 3D illusion of bigger high detailed structures. Therefore a grayscale image is used where Black = lowest height and White = Max Height

UV Mapping

The UV-Mapping of a 3D Model defines how a texture will be applied on models polygons. These UV's are usually stored within the 3D-Model. In some cases, these won't be scaled correctly. Therefore each material has additional properties:

UV Scale

Scales the texture on the model.

UV Offset

Moves the texture on the model.

Texture Mapping

  • UV Mapping: Uses default mapping.

  • Box-Mapping: Computes UVs in a Box perspective.


When using Box-Mapping this defines the size in square meters of one tile.

Animate UV

constantly moves the UV coordinates by the UV-offset values


This option allows to make an object transparent or masked out by an alpha mask.


makes the object transparent *

Alpha Texture

Mask out an object based on a black/white texture

Alpha from Diffuse

Uses the alpha channel from the Diffuse texture for masking


Creates kind of milky glass effect depending on the roughness

The rendering of transparent objects is very limited in Depence. F.e. layering of multiple objects or things like absorption and shadows are not supported.

Once an object is rendered with transparency, the lighting calculations having a huge performance impact. This scales with the number of light & transparent objects. So only use transparency when really necessary and on few objects.


These properties create a procedural wetness effect on the surface.

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